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Michael Clemente: A Reassessment of Common Law Protections for "Idiots"
Michael Ramsey

In the Yale Law Journal, Michael Clemente (Yale Law School '16) has a note titled A Reassessment of Common Law Protections for "Idiots".  Here is the abstract:

When the Eighth Amendment was ratified, common law protections categorically prohibited the execution of “idiots.” On two occasions, the Supreme Court considered whether these protections proscribe executing people with intellectual disabilities; however, the Court concluded that idiocy protections shielded only the “profoundly or severely mentally retarded.” This Note argues that the Court’s historical analysis of idiocy protections was unduly narrow. It then proceeds to reassess common law insanity protections for idiots and finds strong evidence that these protections included people with a relatively wide range of intellectual disabilities. Based on this new historical account, this Note argues that there are people with intellectual disabilities on death row today who likely would have been protected from execution in 1791.

An outstanding student note.  For what it's worth, winner of Yale's  2015 Burton Award for Distinguished Legal Writing.